in English:The following page (106) from the inaugural dissertation with the subject[0] 

INVESTIGATIONS TO[1] 

REACTIONS FROM DEHYDROASCORBIC AND DIKETOGULONIC ACID [2] 

WITH THE HELP OF CALCULATOR-SUPPORTED INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (German)

presented[3]  by Detlef Pagel from Hermannstein, rural distric of Wetzlar (Kreis Wetzlar), Germany

Giessen 1992

was typed and translated by and put into the world wide web with kind permission of the author ©2017.

106

5 Summary

In this dissertation, the oxidation[4]  and reduction of the ascorbic acid / dehydroascorbic acid redox system as well as the alkaline hydrolysis from dehydroascorbic (DHA) to diketogulonic acid (DKG) were analyzed[5] . With the help of the ascertained[6]  band parameters, standard and calibration spectra from the infrared measurements[7] in substances[8], which contain H–O - and C=O - bond groups[9], as well the methodology for observing the reactions with infrared[10]  spectroscopy as the interpretation experienced[11]  an essential[12]  support.

In this context, the problems of the keto-enol tautomerism were studied in acetylacetone and (iso-)ascorbic acids. Furthermore[47], it turned out[13], that the square root values of the integral extinction coefficient of the O=C-stretching vibration modes, which are proportional to the dipole moment changes, varied themselves comparably through the substitution[14]  of neighboring[48][49] bond groups[15] . The phenomenon[50]  of the hydration of keto groups was able to be pursued[43]  infrared spectroscopically[16] in a simple molecule (butanal[17]). With[46] the dehydroascorbic acids in solution, the interpretation is still ambiguous[18]  because of several[19]  effects of mutual influence[20] . However, between crystalline bis-DHA and the hydrated DHA form, clear differences appeared[21]  in the H–O- and O=C-stretching vibration area. Unambiguously[22], the deuteration[23]  of the HO groups was successful[42] for bis-DHA. For the process of saponification of the DHA, functional relationships[24] of temperature and pH with an activation energy of 79.3 kJ/mol were determined[6] . With the help of the electronic data processing (EDP), up to three infrared standard spectra, namely[45] of DHA, DKG, and another one reductone-like substance, were able to be separated from D2O solutions. The pKa value of the soap making product (DKG), determined[6]  by pH-titration and by infrared spectroscopy, corresponds to known pKa values of oxocarboxylic acids (oxocarbonic acids). The evolution[25]  of CO2 in spectra of pellets can be backtracked[26]  to the decarboxylating[27]  DKG. However, DKG is still quite stable in high concentrations in solution at 37°C. The DKG decomposition reactions were examined qualitatively[51] , starting[28]  from DKG-stock solutions also in the neutral and alkaline pH range, except with the infrared spectroscopy, still with the spectrophotometry, the fluorescence and also the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The ruby-red substance, evolved[29]  at high pH value from both[30]  DHA and DKG, unstable opposite[31]  to aerial influences, can be associated[32]  with free radical processes. It was found one EPR signal, indicating R–O ● radicals.

It is problematic[52] that reduction and oxidation[4]  are influenced[33] by instabilities[34]  of DHA and DKG. Thus[35], equimolar NADH concentrations reduce the DHA only incompletely[36] in the physiological pH range because of the additional DHA saponification. The same thing is valid[37]  with reductions by H–S-group containing substances for which[38]  an apparent reaction order similar to the DHA saponification was found. However, one intermediate state[44] to which[39] the real reduction reaction of DHA follows is proven[40]  infrared spectroscopically[16] during reactions by H–S groups. Clear infrared spectroscopic differences were found at oxidation[4]  reactions between derivatives, which are incapable or capable of C(6)–O–C(3) - cyclization[41].
Nota: English synonyms:
Words of the same sense (words of common sense):
Words of similar meaning:
Englische Synonyme:
 0)  subject
topic
 1)  on
to
 2)  ... reactions from dehydroascorbic [acid] and [from] diketogulonic acid ...
Grammatical ellipsis/ellipse:
... reactions from dehydroascorbic and diketogulonic acid ...
 3)  presented
submitted
 4)4)4)  oxidation
oxydation
oxidisation
oxidization
 5)  analyzed
analysed
 6)a)b)  ascertained
determined
found-out
identified
investigated
 7)  With the help of the ascertained band parameters, standard and calibration spectra from the infrared measurements ...
Relative clause, reduced by past participle:
With the help of the band parameters, standard and calibration spectra, ascertained from the infrared measurements ...
 8)  in substances, which contain H–O - and C=O - bond groups[9]
in substances containing H–O - and C=O - bond groups[9]
in H–O - and C=O - bond groups[9]-containing substances
 9)9)9)9)9)9)9)  functional groups
bond groups
 10)  infrared
ultrared
ultra red
 11)  gained
experienced
 12)  an essential
a substantial
 13)  it turned out
it became apparent
it was evident
 14)  substitution
replacement
application
 15)  neighboring bond groups[9]
neighbouring bond groups[9]
adjacent bond groups[9]
 16)16)  with infrared spectroscopy
infrared spectroscopically
 17)  butanal
butyraldehyde
 18)  ambiguous
equivocal
 19)  several
a number of
multiple
 20)  effects of mutual influence
cross-influence effects
effects of interaction
 21)  appeared
resulted
arose
 22)  unambiguously
unequivocally
clearly
 23)  deuteration
deuteriation
deuterizing
 24)  functional relationships [Pl.]
functional coherencies
 25)  development
evolution
 26)  backtracked to
traced back to
retraced to
referred to
followed back to
derived from
 27)  decarboxylating [often]
decarboxylizing [rare]
decarboxylising [very rare]
decarboxylation doing [extremely rare]
 28)  starting from
beginning with
 29)  evolved
developed itself
 30)  from both ... and ...
from ... as well as ...
 31)  opposite to ... influences (↔)
against ... influences (↔)
under ... influences (↧)
 32)  associated with
related to
 33)  are influenced by
are affected by
 34)  instabilities
unstablenesses
 35)  thus
so
therefore
consequently
 36)  reduce ... only incompletely
makes reduction ... only incompletely
does not reduce ... completely
does not make reduction ... completely
 37)  is valid with
applies to
does apply to
goes for
happens with
 38)  for which
for what
wherefore
for that
 39)  state to which the real reduction reaction of DHA follows
state to that one the real reduction reaction of DHA follows
state which the real reduction reaction of DHA follows to
state that the real reduction reaction of DHA follows to
state the real reduction reaction of DHA follows to
 40)  proven [Partizip Perfekt]
proved [Partizip Perfekt; Imperfekt]
controlled
checked
tested
 41)  cyclization
cyclisation
ring forming
ring closure
 42)  succeeded [↔ dts., and., frz.]
came out well [↔ esp., prt.]
had success [↔ esp.]
was successful [↔ prt., gal.]
was done successfully
was performed successfully
 43)  pursued
persecuted
followed
 44)  transitional state
intermediate state
  45)  namely
by name
  46)  with
in the case of
  47)  furthermore
in addition
moreover
  48)  neighboring
neighbouring
  49)  neighboring bond groups
bond groups in neighborhood
  50)  appearence
phenomenon
  51)  qualitatively
concerning the quality
pertaining to quality
with regard to quality
  52)  It is problematic
There is a problem
There are problems

Keywords (/index term): Detlef, Pagel, Giessen, 1992,
DHA, DKG, EPR, NADH, pH, pKa,
acetyl, acetone, acid, activation, alkaline, ascorbic, bis, bond, butanal, calibration, carbonic, carboxylic, coefficient, concentration, crystallin, cyclization, decomposition, dehydro, deuteration, diketo, dipole, dissertation, electron, energy, enol, fluorescence, group, gulonic, hydration, hydrolysis, inaugural, infrared, instabilities, integral, intermediate, interpretation, iso, keto, making, measurement, moment, neutral, order, oxidation, oxo, paramagnetic, parameter, pellet, photometry, physiological, radical, range, reactions, redox, reduction, reductone, relationship, resonance, saponification, solution, soap, spectro, spectroscopic, spectroscopy, state, stock, stretching, subject, substitution, summary, tautomerism, temperature, titration, ultrared, value, vibration
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