in English: The following page (106) from the inaugural dissertation with the subject[0] 

INVESTIGATIONS TO[1] 

REACTIONS FROM DEHYDROASCORBIC AND DIKETOGULONIC ACID [2] 

WITH THE HELP OF CALCULATOR-SUPPORTED INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (German)

presented[3]  by Detlef Pagel from Hermannstein, rural district of Wetzlar (Kreis Wetzlar), Germany

Giessen 1992

was[53]  typed and translated by and put into the world wide web with kind permission of the author ©2018.

106

5 Summary[61] 

In this dissertation, the oxidation[4]  and reduction[55]  of the ascorbic acid / dehydroascorbic acid redox system as well as the alkaline hydrolysis from dehydroascorbic (DHA) to diketogulonic acid (DKG) were[53A]  analyzed[5] . With the help of the ascertained[6]  band[63]  parameters, standard and calibration spectra from the infrared measurements[7] in substances[8], which contain H–O - and C=O - bond groups[9], as well the methodology for observing[62]  the reactions with infrared[10]  spectroscopy as the interpretation experienced[11]  an essential[12]  support.

In this context, the problems of the keto-enol tautomerism were[53A]  studied in acetylacetone and (iso-)ascorbic acids. Furthermore[47], it turned out[13], that the square root values of the integral[65]  extinction[56] coefficient of the O=C-stretching[66]  vibration modes, which are proportional to the dipole moment changes, varied themselves comparably through the substitution[14]  of neighboring[48][49] bond groups[15] . The phenomenon[50]  of the hydration of keto groups was able to be pursued[43][59]  infrared spectroscopically[16] in a simple molecule (butanal[17]). With[46] the dehydroascorbic acids in solution, the interpretation is still ambiguous[18]  because of several[19]  effects of mutual influence[20] . However, between crystalline bis-DHA and the hydrated DHA form, clear differences appeared[21]  in the H–O- and O=C-stretching vibration area. Unambiguously[22], the deuteration[23]  of the HO groups was successful[42] for bis-DHA. For the process of saponification of the DHA, functional relationships[24] of temperature and pH[54]  with an activation energy of 79.3 kJ/mol were[53A]  determined[6] . With the help of[64]  the electronic data processing (EDP), up to three infrared standard spectra, namely[45] of DHA, DKG, and another one reductone-like[67]  substance, were able to be separated[60]  from D2O solutions. The pKa value of the soap making product (DKG), determined[6]  by pH-titration[58]  and by infrared spectroscopy, corresponds[57]  to known pKa values of oxocarboxylic acids (oxocarbonic acids). The evolution[25]  of CO2 in spectra of pellets can be backtracked[26]  to the decarboxylating[27]  DKG. However, DKG is still quite stable in high concentrations in solution at 37°C. The DKG decomposition reactions were[53A]  examined qualitatively[51] , starting[28]  from DKG-stock solutions also in the neutral and alkaline pH[54]  range, except with the infrared spectroscopy, still with the spectrophotometry, the fluorescence and also the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The ruby-red substance, evolved[29]  at high pH[54]  value from both[30]  DHA and DKG, unstable opposite[31]  to aerial influences, can be associated[32]  with free radical processes. It was[53]  found one EPR signal, indicating R–O ● radicals.

It is problematic[52] that reduction[55]  and oxidation[4]  are[53C]  influenced[33A] by instabilities[34]  of DHA and DKG. Thus[35], equimolar NADH concentrations reduce[55A]  the DHA only incompletely[36] in the physiological pH[54]  range because of the additional DHA saponification. The same thing is valid[37]  with reductions[55]  by H–S-group containing substances for which[38]  an apparent reaction order similar to the DHA saponification was[53]  found. However, one intermediate state to which[39] the real reduction[55]  reaction of DHA follows is[53B]  proven[40]  infrared spectroscopically[16] during reactions by H–S groups. Clear infrared spectroscopic differences were[53A]  found at oxidation[4]  reactions between derivatives, which are incapable or capable of C(6)–O–C(3) - cyclization[41].
Nota: English synonyms:
Words of the same sense (words of common sense):
Words of similar meaning:
Englische Synonyme:
 0)  with the subject
with the topic
is entitled
is titled
 1)  on
to
 2)  ... reactions from dehydroascorbic [acid] and [from] diketogulonic acid ...
Grammatical ellipsis/ellipse:
... reactions from dehydroascorbic and diketogulonic acid ...
 3)  presented
submitted
 4)4)4)  oxidation
oxydation
oxidisation
oxidization
 5)  analyzed
analysed [britische Schreibeweise, für Commonwealth ausser für Canada]
 6)a)b)  ascertained
determined (by measure)
found-out
get out
identified
investigated
discovered
explored
observed
 7)  With the help of the ascertained band parameters, standard and calibration spectra from the infrared measurements ...
Relative clause, reduced by past participle:
With the help of the band parameters, standard and calibration spectra, ascertained from the infrared measurements ...
 8)  in substances, which contain H–O - and C=O - bond groups[9]
in substances containing H–O - and C=O - bond groups[9]
in H–O - and C=O - bond groups[9]-containing substances
 9)9)9)9)9)9)9)  functional groups
bond groups
 10)  infrared
ultrared
ultra red
 11)  gained
experienced
 12)  an essential
a substantial
 13)  it turned out
it became apparent
it was evident
it resulted in
it emerged
it came out
 14)  substitution
replacement
application
 15)  neighboring bond groups[9]
neighbouring bond groups[9]
adjacent bond groups[9]
 16)16)  with infrared spectroscopy
infrared spectroscopically
 17)  butanal
butyraldehyde
 18)  ambiguous
equivocal
 19)  several
a number of
multiple
 20)  effects of mutual influence
cross-influence effects
effects of interaction
 21)  appeared
resulted
arose
were inferd
 22)  unambiguously
unequivocally
clearly
 23)  deuteration
deuteriation
deuterizing
deuterization
isotopic labeling with deuterium
selective incorporation of deuterium in place of hydrogen
 24)  functional relationships [Pl.]
functional coherencies
 25)  development
evolution
 26)  backtracked to
traced back to
retraced to
referred to
followed back to
derived from
 27)  decarboxylating [often]
decarboxylizing [rare]
decarboxylising [very rare]
decarboxylation doing [extremely rare]
carboxyl group releasing
carboxyl group losing
 28)  starting from
beginning with
 29)  evolved
developed itself
generated itself
 30)  from both ... and ...
from ... as well as ...
 31)  opposite to ... influences (↔)
against ... influences (↔)
under ... influences (↧)
 32)  associated with
related to
 33)  are influenced by
are affected by
 33A)  [Passiv:] that reduction and oxidation are influenced[33] by instabilities of DHA and DKG
[Pseudo-Passiv:] that reduction and oxidation are under influence of instabilities of DHA and DKG
[Aktiv:] that instabilities of DHA and DKG are taking effect on reduction and oxidation
 34)  instabilities
unstablenesses
 35)  thus
so
therefore
consequently
 36)  [pl.-noun] reduce[55A]  ... only incompletely
[pl.-noun] make reduction[55]  ... only incompletely
[pl.-noun] do not reduce[55A]  ... completely
[pl.-noun] do not make reduction[55]  ... completely
[pl.-noun] don't make reduction[55]  ... completely
 37)  is valid with
applies to
does apply to
goes for
happens with
 38)  for which
for what
wherefore
for that
 39)  intermediate state[44]  to which the (...) follows
intermediate state[44]  after which the (...) follows
intermediate state[44]  to that one the (...) follows
intermediate state[44]  which the (...) follows to
intermediate state[44]  that the (...) follows to
intermediate state[44]  the (...) follows to
mit: (...) = real reduction[55]  reaction of DHA
 40)  proven [Partizip Perfekt; schottisch-englische Variante]
proved [Partizip Perfekt; Imperfekt]
controlled
checked
tested
shown
 41)  cyclization
cyclisation
ring forming
ring closure
 42)  succeeded [↔ dts., and., frz.]
came out well [↔ esp., prt.]
had success [↔ esp.]
was successful [↔ prt., gal.]
was done successfully
was performed successfully
 43)  pursued
persecuted
followed
 44)  transitional state
intermediate state
interstate
  45)  namely
by name
  46)  with
in the case of
  47)  furthermore
in addition
moreover
  48)  neighboring
neighbouring
  49)  neighboring bond groups
bond groups in neighborhood
  50)  appearence
phenomenon
  51)  qualitatively
concerning the quality
pertaining to quality
with regard to quality
  52)  It is problematic
It is problematical
There is a problem
There are problems
  53)  Hilfsverben für den PASSIV /"passive voice" (eng.)
was
got
  53A)  Hilfsverben für den PASSIV /"passive voice" (eng.)
were
got
  53B)  Hilfsverben für den PASSIV /"passive voice" (eng.)
is
get
  53C)  Hilfsverben für den PASSIV /"passive voice" (eng.)
are
get
  54)  pH
the negative common logarithm of the activity of hydrogen ion in solution
the common cologarithm of the activity of hydrogen ion in solution
[less precise:] the cologarithm with base 10 of the concentration of hydrogen ion in solution
  55)  reduction(s)
deoxidation(s)
  55A)  reduce
deoxidize
deoxidise
do reduction
  56)  extinction
(act of) extinguishing
attenuation
  57)  corresponds
is set in line
  58)  titration
titrimetry
volumetry
  59)  one managed to pursue [active voice]
was able to be pursued [passive voice]
  60)  one managed to separate [active voice]
were able to be separated [passive voice]
  61)  conclusion
summary
resume
  62)  observation
observing
watching
  63)  band
zone
stripe
  64)  with the help of
by means of
  65)  contiguous
integral
  66)  stretching
extension
  67)  reductonely substance
reductone-like substance
substance like a reductone
substance being similar to reductone
substance which is similar to reductone

Keywords (/index term): Detlef, Pagel, Giessen, 1992,
DHA, DKG, EPR, NADH, pH, pKa,
acetyl, acetone, acid, activation, alkaline, ascorbic, bis, bond, butanal, calibration, carbonic, carboxylic, coefficient, concentration, crystallin, cyclization, decomposition, dehydro, deuteration, diketo, dipole, dissertation, electron, energy, enol, fluorescence, group, gulonic, hydration, hydrolysis, inaugural, infrared, instabilities, integral, intermediate, interpretation, iso, keto, making, measurement, moment, neutral, order, oxidation, oxo, paramagnetic, parameter, pellet, photometry, physiological, radical, range, reactions, redox, reduction, reductone, relationship, resonance, saponification, solution, soap, spectro, spectroscopic, spectroscopy, state, stock, stretching, subject, substitution, summary, tautomerism, temperature, titration, ultrared, value, vibration
Haftungsausschluss
Flag Counter
© drpagel.de Alle Rechte vorbehalten.